How NOT to hire a PM #1: The Video/Phone Screening Interview

The initial phone screening interview is a risky affair, which can lead to rejection of many suitable candidates. The screening call can be used to gauge the candidate's interest, check on relevant experience and so on. But that call cannot be the basis to reject a suitable candidate.

Any professional interviewing for a role will have several years of experience under his belt. A recruiter cannot decide on the basis of a 15-30 minute phone call whether the candidate will be a good hire for the next few years. All you can gauge are communication skills, interest, availability, background, CV points and so on. If you find a mismatch between the CV and candidate's responses, then flag the candidate. Else he must be interviewed in detail in subsequent rounds.

There is a common cognitive bias called the Dunning-Kruger effect. It allows people with limited ability to overestimate their skills at a task. If you have interviewers in your panel who claim to assess candidates within 10 minutes or so, then you may have this issue. It is important to re-train such panelists.

A screening interview is never a decision point in a selection process. You can miss out on some great prospects if you are not careful.

 Note: Phone screening interviews are different from an interview conducted over the phone.You can look at hundreds of examples of feedback on PM phone interviews on Here is one example of a Google Product Manager phone interview. Here is an example from Amazon India.

Identify your Cloud Customer Journey with CX Touchpoints


Becoming a SaaS vendor is not easy, not when you have thousands of vendors competing in your category. The website ChiefMarTec has a cool visual that shows 8,000 vendors offering marketing technology solutions. And this number is up from ~6800 in 2018.

The growth in various categories in 2020, is also shown on the website, shared below. 

To differentiate yourself based on features is well-nigh impossible in such a scenario. A key is to focus on the complete Customer Journey and the overall Customer Experience.
CX Touchpoints in a Cloud Customer Journey
Cloud Customer Journey

Looking at customer acquisition, engagement and retention, you need to provide a delightful customer experience at all CX touch points. 

Hence your cloud customer engagement strategy is vital for revenue growth and recurring sales. While a detailed strategy and framework is too large to post here, analysis of CX touchpoints and creation of a Customer Journey Map is a good start.

 [Ping me if you need a PowerPoint version of the CX Journey image above.]


Product Success

 Product success is often misunderstood as:

  • launching the product or a new version
  • Releasing a cool set of features
  • Getting x downloads (X being any thousands or millions) in a period
  • Increasing engagement by y% over the previous period 

and so on.

My suggestion is that true product success happens when you get sustainable, long term, profitable, revenue from the product (and/or associated services). Incidentally, this is how long term businesses are built.

If you cannot see a path to sustainable, long term revenue, then your product success is probably transient.

Of course, all this depends on the product category, apps, e-commerce websites, SaaS solutions, deep tech. solutions or others.

How NOT to Hire a Product Manager (PM) Series

The Perfect PM Candidate?

In my career, I have hired or interviewed product managers for different roles in multiple countries and firms. I have also had friends and colleagues attend interviews from PM roles. There are many ways to select someone for a PM role. Unfortunately the process does not work perfectly every time.

For startups hiring PMs, or firms setting up a PM team, you must avoid certain pitfalls. In the next few blog postings, I will talk about real experiences of people as they tried to hire PMs or candidates who interviewed for the role of a product manager.


BTW, there are many articles available online on how to hire a technology product manager. Here is one link from Ken Norton, link to a article, and here is another one from You can review these if you are planning to recruit a product manager for your team or startup.

Keep reading this blog for more posts in this series.


Buzzwords in your Product Feature Set


[Re-post, still relevant from 5 years ago]

In technology product management, it is easy to get tempted by the fashionable trends of the season. For web properties, it is features related to AI, Machine Learning and "Big Data", earlier it was "Web 2.0 Features or SLATES".

When such buzzwords become commonplace, the products promoted using this terminology, during sales pitches or marketing events also gain credibility in the eyes of the layman. However, the product manager should not be swayed by these fashionable feature sets. It is always the buyer, the influencers and their product reviews that are the key to gaining market share and increasing revenue.

Fundamentally, nothing has really changed. As a product manager, your vision and roadmap will contain features that are useful to woo customers to try, buy and keep using your products. And these features are either going to give you a competitive edge, retain existing customers, or attract users who are not yet using the products.

If these reasons attracted you to these fashionable features(and of course, the side benefits of tempting developers to build them out and of influencing senior management on thought leadership), then consider this blog post, that talks about the diffusion of innovation, and product adoption. I will leave you to understand the implications, but the key takeaways from this include:

a) Adoption rates of most consumer technologies in this century follow a similar curve

b) There is a real adoption chasm that exists in most product categories, beware that your product does not fall in that chasm

b) Innovative features take time to identify, design and develop

FashionSo how can you cater to the fashion sense of the day, and still follow the established strategic principles? That requires building consensus, and having a market research driven approach to identifying the best features for the various consumer or user segments.

In fact, gaining consensus on the product roadmap is a vital activity, and it takes a lot of time.

SaaS Product KPIs

For any SaaS business, you can track several metrics and ratios to see how your business is doing.  Similarly, over the entire sales funnel, and for client retention, you can track several product KPIs (Key Performance Indicators), which indicate how your product is accepted in the market. 

The image below depicts how product KPI are identified and tracked at various stages of the funnel.


This slide is useful if you are leading a product team, or are making the business case for a new product. For any business case, you have to identify the metrics as well as the quarterly and yearly targets. There are other metrics that may be useful for your market, however, the funnel should remain the same.

If you need the pptx version of the image, mail me, or drop a comment, I will reply back.

Are Personas Obsolete in the App or Web world?

As people learn advanced product management, they try to solve more complex product problems. Now a common problem that is cropping up in the SaaS or app world is the identification or creation of personas. But given the massive amount of usage data, and the quality of real time analytics and artificial intelligence today, are they really necessary?


Personas are a commonly used tool by product managers and product designers, to denote a fictional user of a software or a set of features. Rather than making assumptions about feature usage, you identify a set of users with similar needs, who will use the software in a particular way. Based on this set, you create a fictional persona, which is then used to validate any new feature idea.
If you attend any product presentation or work with UX designers they will identify personas for their work.

There are many videos on YouTube, such as this one, that also talk about personas, how to create them, the value they add and so on.

Personas: Good or Bad

So there are both sides to the story.
On one hand, there is a detailed blog post on the Adobe blog. It talks about how they use personas for design and why they are important. Given the prominence of Adobe in the design world, this is a strong perspective.
On the other hand, this post on UX Collective, talks in detail about why personas have limitations, and where they stop adding value (Why is the 'college' of a persona important? What happens to users who attended thousands of other colleges?).
And the Neilsen Norman group (world famous in UX domain) also has an article titled "Why Personas Fail" that talks about the challenges in using personas. As you gain more experience in using personas, you will definitely encounter such challenges.

The Bottom Line

There are both pros and cons to using personas. However, the tools to track usage and user engagement have improved to such an extent, that you can see in real time what an actual human using is doing, filtering out data about bots and other automated tools. This is particularly true for B2C tools for apps and websites. And if you have the resources, you can invest in an analytics team that can offer detailed insights into every significant interaction or engagement of any user. In fact, for a product manager, I would recommend that they get certified on Google Analytics, rather than on any UX tool used to create personas.
As a product manager, you can still use personas to suggest new features and engagement (use cases), however the validation of features already released is better understood by using data and tools, rather than referring back to the standard personas.

SaaS API Security and Management – Impact of Cloud Access Security Brokers (CASB)

[This is a mildly technical post, intended for product audiences]

So your firm launched an app for tracking stock market data in different countries, and it has received a lot of traction (downloads, usage and other metrics). After a while, the app has done really well, and now your business is expanding to cover more and more use cases. This is also important for monetizing your app.

However, a key use case identified by the Product Manager (PM) is of transferring data to and from business partners using SaaS APIs. It could be for sharing reports, financial information, security information or other data. And it so happens that the partner's data center resides in the cloud in another country, geography or region, with it's own rules for data access.

Well, the personas, features and access rules you created for your own tightly controlled app may no longer be enough. You will need to understand the rules of access, and the scope of data sharing that is possible and permitted. Based on that, several addition features may be required to manage data access of your partner.

Let's continue with the example of the stock market app. Here are 3 use cases:
1. Your partner collects user information to share specific data of based on list of that users tracked stocks
2. Your employees needs to access the user's bank balance details to share top recommendations for investment
3. Your partner needs to aggregate your user data with similar apps users to improve its own performance
And in many such cases, the role of CASB (Cloud Access Security Brokers) is gaining prominence.
One key function they perform is to manage secure access to such data, based on policies, roles, rules and other heuristics.

Now even if a PM is a functional or domain expert, she still needs to understand privacy, security and access management to define the best use cases within his app. Otherwise, such use cases will be termed as "technical" and the architect will define these. [I do not recommend this approach, as the PM should be the best judge of use case quality, usability and app metrics.] In large firms you will have PMs looking at security and privacy, however they have their own priorities in the organization.

Here are some guidelines for data transfer across domains, clouds, companies or countries:
  1. Read what the CASB's are writing about their products. Netskope has it's website and so does Oracle. This gives insights into what is possible in terms of new features.
  2. Have a Data Processor Agreement in place with all partners. Either the legal or the business development team should take point for this, however empowered PMs or Directors can also lead this effort.
  3. Talk to your platform teams, including PMs and architects to understand what is currently possible and what new features are on their roadmap.
  4. Create partner personas, cloud personas and other relevant user types (including employees and admins). When adding features that use SaaS APIs, it gives a lot of information to the testing team to ensure compliance with business laws and requirements.
Enterprises never develop apps in a vacuum, there is always an existing IT infrastructure and applications (which may be in public, private or hybrid clouds). By understanding SaaS data transfer and CASBs, you can improve your apps, whilst making them more secure and usable.

[Reach out to me on LinkedIn if you would like to discuss more]

Killer Features or Killer Products?

If you're a seasoned product manager, you must have heard about the "killer feature" that enabled product X to dominate the market, or product Y to completely change the paradigm for all competitors.
By definition, this is a revolutionary change, that was missed by competitors either because of 
a) lack of investment
b) lack of understanding
c) lack of interest
d) different strategic priorities

However, the "killer feature" seldom emerges in today's agile world. Products have "incremental" features, and the product team's focus is on hedging their bets by making small tweaks in different functional areas. And no, allowing seamless data transfer over the internet or improving your perimeter security is never a revolutionary change (it can be good marketing spiel).

So are all companies doomed to create "me-too" products? More often that not, business strategy still dictates that a large company enter a segment or country, where it's competitor is entrenched (Google Wave?). Additionally, it is easier to get incremental budget to introduce 10 new features, than to invest in a completely new idea (those are usually doomed within innovation labs in large firms.)

Unless your firm is a dominant software vendor, you will end up working on those me-too products, building incremental features, based on "competitive analysis" and prioritized based on the skills of your engineering teams.
To make a paradigm shift, which is itself a big career risk, you need to pitch your idea and the business case, to a business decision maker. Only if there is buy-in, can you even hope for investment in that idea.
And the decision maker must be convinced of the benefit of supporting this, for their career. Otherwise, you are probably better off recommending a strategic investment in a startup, or identifying a potential acquisition.

B2B SaaS Solutions: The 'SaaS' is unnecessary

The New Wave Tech

Technology has a way of reinventing itself. 20 years after the Y2K fears, the Y2KK bug is lurking again. We had full stack developers before, who were in turn displaced by specialists, but are again back in demand. The same goes for software stacks, programming languages, data analytics etc.

However, in the B2B software world, some things have changed permanently. And one of them is migration to the cloud. It is a very rare enterprise that does not have some of their IT in the cloud (public, private or hybrid: a definition from Microsoft). If you are not familiar with the term SaaS, here is a link to the Wikipedia article.

  • There are a number of vendors available to meet your privacy, security and compliance needs (here is a white paper from Symantec). 
  • The quality of cloud infrastructure can support really critical applications, including telecom billing, at scale. I remember hearing from a CTO in 2015, that "billing solutions will never move to the cloud". It just shows that technology changes can disrupt a lot of planning and strategy.
  • The skills to manage such infrastructure were scarce even 10 years ago, but are ubiquitous now. Most people have re-skilled, and are able to handle this change very well.
  • Even governments have recognized the consumer privacy and security needs and have framed laws to support this transition. The E-privacy Regulation, GDPR and similar laws 
  • Every single digital transformation initiative, across industries, talks about moving to the cloud. I do not know of any case where digital transformation requires buying physical servers or building desktop based applications.
So why are recruiters, candidates and hiring managers still talking about B2B SaaS as a separate category of work? There is hardly any other option viable, if you want to build a scalable, secure and distributed application for any category of users (employees, vendors, consumers, internal teams). Even mobile apps can be powered from cloud servers securely. And if your people are not skilled at planning, building, deploying or maintaining cloud solutions or mobile apps, then you can always use the time proven product management strategy - "Buy, Build or Partner".
In fact, here is one slide from a article talking about it. This is a pretty important product management topic, so I will post more about this in future.

Bottom Line

In 2020, in the B2B software category, the word 'SaaS' is redundant. Every software solution is, or will be cloud driven, and people associated with these services (systems engineers, web developers, product managers, infrastructure teams) will need the necessary skills to deliver these services.

World Data Privacy Day - 28-Jan-2020

Yesterday was recognized as World Data Privacy Day globally, except in the EU, where it is known as the Data Protection Day. 
In most online magazines, there were articles about how to protect yourself. The Data Economy website has provided 10 tips for safeguarding your data. Some good ones include:
  • Carefully read and modify your privacy settings on websites you visit
  • Actively manage your reputation online, by deciding who can see your content
  • Always use added security, beyond simple passwords, for your online accounts
  • Be aware of what others are posting about you, this can impact your online reputation big-time
  • Always keep a backup of your online data, including photos, posts, credit card statements etc.
If you look at large corporations, there are active data security and privacy policies in place. They protect and enable the organization to safely handle consumer data in compliance with the laws in different countries or states. Here is a link to Walmart's Privacy Policy, which is also the largest corporation in the world. However, despite these efforts, data breaches can still occur, with significant financial and reputational impact to both firms and consumers. This CISO article lists 5 major breaches that occurred in recent times.

For consumers, there are the data protection laws that protect their online and offline data. However, a point to note is that these don't actively protect you against hacking or other attacks on your reputation. They will provide a legal framework to address the issues that arise if your privacy is breached.

For victims of identity theft or data theft, the consequences can be immense, and it is a prolonged process to recover from the same. There is also a comedy movie from Hollywood called Identity Thief released in 2013 that touches on this subject.

If you are concerned about your privacy, or identity management, ensure that you follow at least some basic security protocols, such as those listed above. Depending on the country you live in, data recovery or reputation management can be very difficult once data is released in the public domain.

Seasons Greetings and a Happy New Year

Lots of interesting things are happening in the technology products space. There are startups becoming unicorns, telcos anticipating 5G use cases, and enterprises looking for more and secure ways to handle consumer privacy.
2019 has been an interesting year, where I personally saw how investor money was not utilized in the right way due to internal politics, a great product I advised on was delayed and the e-commerce space is beginning to rationalize.
I feel 2020 will be the year when product consultants and advisors will get their due, advising CXOs on top level product strategy in the digital transformation story. However, the nuts and bolts of product development and roadmaps/stories/epics etc. will continue to be distributed among product managers and agile product owners.

Happy New Year to All!!

Product Blogs and Social Media Presence

Google has a lot of official blogs. Here is the main one, and at the bottom, you can see links to several other blogs, including corporate, product and developer blogs. (The complete directory is available here. So does your company follow this trend and also host several blogs? And what is the value of such blogs and blog posts.

Almost eight years ago, I tracked a blog post on a large software company's product line blog. That line is a specialized category with limited consumer interest. At that time, they got 50k page views and over 10k visitors.[ Note: this is a top level number and does not delve into much detail on accuracy, visitor segmentation etc] And this is a well maintained blog, with articles on product usage, updates from engineers and product managers and information on industry events.

Recently, I looked at the blogs on Adobe website's.  For a post from last week, there are 6 likes and 6 forwards visible on the website. If you scroll down, these numbers are about average for every blog post. If these are an indication of deeper engagement, then the product blog as a medium to engage people seems to be in trouble. And this excludes the number of people who may potentially post comments on the blog posts.

Interestingly, you can compare those numbers with those for a product management blog, such as the one called Mind the Product. I am sure that a blog like this, that comes on top of google search results for "product management blogs" must get at least 5k page views a month. [I know it's like comparing apples and oranges, however, the value of a blog should be analyzed independent of other factors]

Widen your official product presence

For a niche product, it may not be cost-effective to just maintain a product blog. Instead, a social presence on multiple channels, such as on Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest might be a far better mechanism to engage the audience.  

Any challenges to shutting down your blog and starting a Facebook presence? A few come to mind.
  1. Accessibility: If your audience is business users, they may not be comfortable surfing Facebook from work. And from home, they may use personal accounts, which may hide true audience demographics.
  2. Search: Facebook search is good, but for general search terms, Google search is better
  3. Privacy: You may not want to publish information about your followers, as your competitors could also be lurking there
In the end, your leadership team's vision will decide how you approach social media, and how your product gets the benefits. But if you want to make a case for a Facebook presence, or a broader social media presence for your products or product line, do think about the above factors.